(Continuing Bertrand Russell's "God and Religion")
Chapter 7 is "The Essence of Religion". Not much to say here.
Chapter 8 is "Religion and the Churches". I think Russell gives away his position on page 112, "The world is our world, and it rests with us to make it a heaven or a hell." This is works righteousness: our works, our deeds making the world right; making us right with God.
Chapter 9 is "A Debate on the Existence of God". There were a couple of interesting points brought out here, but overall, I found it overly complicated. Russell was debating F. C. Copleston (referred to as Father Copleston). On morality:
Copleston: "Yes, but what's your justification for distinguishing between good and bad or how do you view the distinction between them?"
Russell: "I don't have any justification any more than I have when I distinguish between blue and yellow..."
Russell sticks with this "blue versus yellow" analogy, which I don't understand. Blue is a range of wavelength of light (440-490 nm). He would be better off with "preferring ketchup versus mustard" or something...
But the main point is, he has no justification for distinguishing good and bad.